宋朝的輝煌-各時代有不同評價 | Friedrich Wang

陳寅恪先生說,東方的古代文明到了宋代達到鼎盛。這不單單指的是物質文明,更大程度上是精神層次。

太祖趙匡胤創建北宋,相傳有三大遺訓:善待柴家子孫,不殺大臣及言事官,永不加農民稅賦。雖然太祖出身行伍,由這三樣遺訓就可以理解他對中國歷史的深刻洞察。善待柴家可以扭轉五代殺伐血腥的氣息,農民吃得飽就基本不會造反,尊敬與禮遇文臣,讓他們得到暢所欲言就可以使朝廷時時刻刻保持警醒。光是這三點就可以得知這位開國帝王的睿智,而他的子孫也大致上能夠奉行,很少例外。

南北宋相加起來共計300多年,沒有發生過一次全國性的農民叛變,柴家子孫直到最後時刻的厓山戰役都與趙家子孫一起奮戰殉國,除了一個岳飛之外,皇帝基本沒殺過大臣,即使賈似道這種誤國巨奸也只是被免職流放。300多年大致的和平安定使中國人口一舉突破1.2億,根據各種資料估算,光是半壁江山的南宋其GDP就佔了世界的45%左右。

這樣溫和愛民,並且在學術、經濟、教育、甚至和平處理邊疆關係等方面不遺餘力的朝代,並且實行世界最早的軍隊國家化政策與發行紙幣,到了近代卻被打上了積弱不振的黑暗印記。其實,北宋的貿易以及經濟優勢,基本上已經控制了契丹、西夏等國的財政,所以才能和平120年左右,南宋對女真的情況也類似。

近代中國的內憂外患,戰敗後簽訂不平等條約,使得宋朝不再得到肯定。反而古代被看得甚低,窮兵黷武的帝王,如漢武帝等,因此翻轉了歷史評價,變成民族英雄般地被歌頌。直到1930年代,才又有學者發現到宋代的偉大。在宋朝之後,蒙古人短暫統治全中國,實際上是文明的一次倒退,而趕走蒙古人的朱元璋才是真正的專制帝國,對士大夫血腥屠戮,滿清王朝有樣學樣,更之後的白色恐怖、三反五反、文化大革命…..,中國讀書人到今天也只能苟延殘喘罷了。宋代的開明在中國成了絕響。

克羅奇說:「任何歷史都是當代史」,這由宋代地位百年來的消長,可以得到完美的詮釋。

對「宋朝的輝煌-各時代有不同評價 | Friedrich Wang」的一則回應

  1. This article is so egregiously wrong, on so many levels, I don’t even know where to start.

    I suppose your view of the Song is kind of a litmus test, like abortion, affirmative action, etc., in contemporary American politics. Just tell people where you stand on these issues/litmus tests, and generally, you’d reveal which side you’re on, in a debate on an issue that forces you to choose one of only two sides. The underlying debate here is really this: scientific-realism/"legalism" vs. academic-idealism/"confucianism". And if you still haven’t made up your mind which side you’re on, or if you think you agree with both, then you’re still asleep, and slowly suffocating to death, in Mr. Lu Xun’s iron house.

    If you know anything or care about Chinese history, it’s hard not to have a strong opinion on the Song. Obviously, I have a low regard for that dynasty. It’s like the Jin dynasty, between the Han and the Tang. Here are two “lessons" from world history that I’d the Song emperors to learn:

    1. “Virtue" is only meaningful if you are courageous enough to confront the fact that “evil" exists. In fact, as the leader of a country, “you", meaning the song emperors, need to confront not just the fact of “evil", but “evil" itself. “evil" here means anything that threatens your national security.
    2. “You", meaning the Chinese [and that includes me], are not special. We are just one culture/people out of many that exist in this world. This means we are not exempt from competition, and the rule of survival-of-the-fittest/strongest. To survive, “strength" is paramount. “survival of the most virtuous" is a lie. This lie is essentially the opiate that confucianism has been feeding the Chinese people for centuries. Well, I should say Zhu-Xi Neoconfucianism. For confucianism to become meaningful and motivational again, you’d have to wait for WangYangMing, in the Ming dynasty, for which the author evidently doesn’t feel much love.

    It’s a good thing that a lot of us Chinese in the 21st century are finally quitting the heroin habit that is Confucianism. Better late than never.

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