美國疫情顯示的種族不平等 | 盛嘉麟

美國西海岸各州有很多拉丁/西班牙裔,也可說是過去的墨西哥人,他們是最受到疫情傷害的群體。英文部份是資料來源,供閒暇的網友閱讀。

  • 加州的墨西哥人佔總人口40%,卻佔確診病人的55%。
  • 奧勒岡州的墨西哥人佔總人口13%,卻佔確診病人的38%。
  • 華盛頓州的墨西哥人佔總人口13%,卻佔確診病人的44%。

從事低層勞力工作的墨西哥人,他們必須每天出門到工地工作,不能像上班族在家線上工作,所以他們每天暴露在擁擠危險的環境,容易互相感染新冠病毒。他們回家以後住在三代同堂擁擠的公寓,家人互相傳染,所以墨西哥人占確診病人的比例,遠超過總人口的比例。

加州大學舊金山校區的教授在舊金山地區隨機取樣3,953個樣本,研究確診病人的狀況。

  • 3,953個樣本中的墨西哥人,3.9%是確診病人。
  • 3,953個樣本中的其他族裔,0.2%是確診病人。

墨西哥人患病人口的比率是其他族裔比率的20倍。

加州疫情在前期由於州政府嚴格的封城居家令,一度疫情好轉,於是州政府在六月開放封城居家令,恢復經濟生活。這時墨西哥人因為知識程度低,疏忽了戴口罩及保持距離的防疫要求,不如其他族裔的小心嚴謹保護自己,因此造成嚴重的二度疫情感染,而墨西哥人首當其衝。另一個弱勢群體是老人安養院的老人,佔了加州總死亡人數的47%。

美國是最不照顧弱勢群體、弱勢族裔的國家。

The most significant outbreak is among the state’s urban and rural Latino populations. Among cases where the patient’s race is known, 55 percent of California’s infections have been in Latinos, who make up just under 40 percent of the state’s population. Latinos and Hispanics are bearing the brunt of the pandemic not only in California but along the entire West Coast, including Oregon (38 percent of cases where the patient’s race is known vs. only 13 percent of the population) and Washington (44 percent vs. 13 percent).

In California, the infected are predominantly low-income, densely housed front-line service workers. Leaving home to work each day, they are exposed to the virus. When they return, it spreads in their households, which are often multigenerational. The consequences are striking. In late April, professor Gabriel Chamie and colleagues from the University of California at San Francisco studied 3,953 individuals living in a single census tract in the Mission District of San Francisco. While the estimated prevalence of infection among non-Latinos in this population was 0.2 percent, for Latinos, it was 3.9 percent — nearly 20 times higher.

Another of California’s sub-epidemics has been among people who, upon the state’s reopening, have failed to treat the virus as real and dangerous. They seem unable or unwilling to distance themselves from others and wear masks begrudgingly, if at all. From the beaches and bars of Southern California to backyard barbecues in the Central Valley to a fraternity house in Berkeley, failure to heed safety warnings has inexorably pushed the incidence of infection higher.

In addition, there have been explosive outbreaks in institutional settings in California. As in the rest of the country, California’s long-term care facilities, such as skilled nursing and assisted-living facilities, have been particularly vulnerable; overall, 47 percent of Californians who have died of covid-19 have been nursing home residents.

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